Diagnosing Effect of English Novels on Augmenting EFL Learners’ Language Skills and Competencies

Yalmiadi Yalmiadi, Rahma Yanti, Toni Indrayadi, Wahyudi Rahmat


 English novels add new dimensions to augmenting the second language or foreign language learners’ skills and competencies. However, English novels have little roles in the Indonesian ELT context and gradually fade away from Indonesian EFL learning’s programs today. This study, therefore, aimed at diagnosing the effects of English novels on augmenting EFL learners’ language skills and competencies. This research entailed a qualitative research approach. The English Department (ED) students numbering 20 were the research participants. The interviews, focus groups, and participant observation were the key techniques of collecting data. The 1994 Miles and Huberman model of data display, data reduction, and conclusion were stages of analyzing the data. The findings show that reading English novels extensively and intensively develop the ED students’ language skills of higher thinking skills, vocabulary acquisition, and productive-receptive skills of English and linguistic and pragmatic competencies. In conclusion, English novels discover a love of the language, practically improve and develop the 2nd-year ED students’ exposure to English language and lead them to communicate like native English speakers.  


English novels; EFL learners; language skills; competencies

Full Text:



Anderson, L. W., & Krathwohl, D. R. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing, Abridged Edition. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Al Azri, H., R & Al-Rashdi, H., M (2014). The Effect Of Using Authentic Materials In Teaching. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 3(10).

Al-Mahrooqi, R. (2012). Reading literature in English: Challenges facing Omani college students. Asian EFL Journal, 57(1), p. 24-51.

Benson, M., Benson, E., & Ilson, R. (1986). The BBI combinatory dictionary of English: A guide to word combinations. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Butler, I. 2002). Language through literature through language: An action research report on the English 100 course at the University of North West. Literator, 23(2), p. 33-50, doi.org/10.4102/lit.v23i2.329.

Cakir, I. (2006). Developing Cultural Awareness In Foreign Language Teaching. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education-TOJDE, 7(3).

Canale, M & Swain, M. (2017). Grammatical Competence. Retrieved from https://slaencyclopediaf10.wikispaces.com/Grammatical+Competence+%28Michael+ Canale+%26+Merrill+Swain%29?responseToken=0028a5c35b53c6368f3f5dc7aa70ac716.

Canale, M & Swain, M. (1980). Theoretical Bases of Communicative Aproaches to Second Language Teaching and Testing. Aplied Linguistics, 1(1), p. 1–47, doi.org/10.1093/aplin/I.1.1.

Diaz-Rico, L. T. & Weed, K. Z. (2010). The crosscultural, language, and academic development handbook: A complete K-12 reference guide (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Emerson, R.M., Fretz, R.I. & Shaw, L.L. (2011) Writing ethnographic fieldnotes (2nd ed). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Erkaya, R., O. 2005. Benefits of Using Short Stories in the EFL Context. Asian EFL Journal 5(8).

Gao, C. Z. (2001). Second language learning and the teaching of grammar. Education, 2(2), p. 326-336.

Genhard, J., G. (1996). Teaching English as a foreign language: A teacher self-development and methodology. Ann Arbor: the University of Michigan Press.

Godwin, D., & Perkins, M. (1998). Teaching language and literacy in the early years. London: David Fulton Publishers.

Goldberg, S. (2006). Integrating the arts: An aproach to teaching and learning in multicultural and multilingual settings. Boston, MA: Pearson.

Guillot, Marie-Noelle, (1999). Fluency and its teaching. Clevedon, U.K: Multilingual Matters.

Henry, Gary T. (1990). Practical sampling. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.

Hoang, H & Boers, F. (2016). Re-telling a story in a second language: How well do adult learners mine an input text for multiword expressions? SSLLT, 6 (3), p. 513-535, doi: 10.14746/ssllt.2016.6.3.7.

Kelly, C., Kelly L., Offner, M., and Vorland, B. (2002). Effective ways to use authentic materials with ESL/EFL students. The Internet TESL Journal, (8)11.

Kitzinger, J. (1995) Introducing focus groups. BMJ, 3(11), p. 299-302.

Khatib, M., Rezaei, S., & Derakhshan, A. (2011). Literature in EFL/ESL classroom. English Language Teaching, 4(1), p. 201-208, doi.org/10.5539/elt.v4n1p201.

Laine, E. (1997). The place of story-telling in language teaching. In P. Falvey & P. Kennedy (Eds.), Learning language through literature: A sourcebook for teachers of English in Hong Kong (p. 65-72). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. Retrieved from https://cvsampleresume.com/language-skills.

Larsen-Freeman, D. 2000. Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lewis, M (1997). Pedagogical Implication of the Lexical Aproach. In J. Coady and T Huckin (eds.) Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Li, E. (2008). What is Pragmatics? New Taipei, Taiwan: Fu Jen Catholic University. Retrieved from

Margret and H.A. Rey (2017). Benefits of Independent Reading. Retrieved from https://www.hmhco.com/classroom/classroom-solutions/independent-readinglibraries/.

Martinez, A.G. (2002). Authentic materials: An overview. Free resources for teachers and students of English, Karen's Linguistics Issues, 1-7.

Matthews, J. (2017). Presentation on theme: "Today Vocabulary teaching Vocabulary assessment"— Presentation transcript. Retrieved from http://slideplayer.com/slide/7254589/.

McQuillan, J., & Tse, L. (1998). What’s the story? Using the narrative aproach in beginning language classrooms. TESOL Journal, 7(4), p. 18-23.

Miles, M.B. & Huberman, A.M. (1994) Qualitative data analysis: an expanded sourcebook (2nd. Ed). London: Sage.

Morehouse, K. (2017). What Are the Four Language Skills? Retrieved from https://www.linguacore.com/blog/the-four-skills/.

Nadig, A. (2013) Listening Comprehension. Springer. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/10.1007%2F978-1-4419-1698-3.

Nation, P (1994). New Ways in Teaching Vocabulary. TESOL.

Nation, Paul (1990). Teaching and Learning Vocabulary. Newbury House, New York.

Nichol, M. (2017). 7 Classes of Phrases. Retrieved from https://www.dailywritingtips.com/7-classes-ofphrases/.

Nordquist, R. (2017). pragmatic competence - Glossary of Grammatical and Rhetorical Terms. https://www.thoughtco.com/pragmatic-competence-1691653 in Thomas J. (1983) "Cross-Cultural Pragmatic Failure,". Rpt. in World Englishes: Critical Concepts in Linguistics, Vol. 4, ed. by Kingsley Bolton and Braj B. Kachru. Routledge, 2006.

Nordquist, R. (April 07, 2017). Vocabulary acquisition. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/vocabulary-acquisition-1692490.

Nuttall, C. (1996) Teaching Reading Skills in a foreign language (New Edition) Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Prior, L. (2003) Using Documents in social research. London: Sage Publications.

Rasinski, T. V.; Farstrup, A. (2006). "A brief history of reading fluency". In Samuels, S. What research has to say about fluency instruction. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. p. 70–93 in https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluency.

Renau, R., L., M. 2016. A Review of the Traditional and Current Language Teaching Methods. Online. International Journal of Innovation and Research in Educational Sciences, 3(2).

Richard, J.C. (2001). Curriculum development in language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Richards, J. C. and Rogers, T. (1986) Aproaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Schreiber, Peter A. (1991-06-01). "Understanding prosody's role in reading acquisition". Theory Into Practice. 30(3), p. 158–164, doi:10.1080/00405849109543496.

Seidenberg, M., S. (1992). "Beyond Orthographic Depth in Reading: Equitable Division of Labor." In: Ram Frost & Leonard Katz (eds.). Orthography, Phonology, Morphology, and Meaning, p. 85–118. Amsterdam: Elsevier, p. 93. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orthography.

Siyabi, S., M. (2017). Integrating True Short Stories into English Classes: The Case of Foundation Students in Oman. English Language Teaching, 10(3), doi.org/10.5539/elt.v10n3p164.

Sugiyono. 2008. Metode Penelitian Bisnis. Alfabeta : Bandung.

The Learning Centre (TLC). (n.d) Analysing Short Stories/Novels. Retrieved from www.shahroodut.ac.ir/fa//download.php?id=1111131379.

Toping, D. N. (1968). Linguistics or literature: An aproach to language. TESOL Quarterly, 2(2), p. 95-100. doi.org/10.2307/3586085.

Wajnryb, R. (2003). Stories: Narrative a ctivities for the language classroom. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Wheeler, J. (2001). Stories in the language classroom - Integrating language skills. In A. Mok (Ed.), Task-based learning, language arts and the media: A resource book for secondary English teachers (p. 35-48). Hong Kong: INSTEP, Faculty of Education, University of Hong Kong.

Wolfe-Quintero, Kate; Shunji, Inagaki; Hae-Young, Kim (1998). Second language development in writing : measures of fluency, accuracy, & complexity. Honolulu: Second Language Teaching & Curriculum Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa.

WordDiveBlog. (February 25, 2013). Words Will Get You Far: Why is Vocabulary Acquisition so important in Second and Foreign Language Learning? Retrieved from http://www.worddive.com/blog/words-will-get-you-far-why-is-vocabularyacquisition-so-important-in-second-and-foreign-language-learning/.

Yang, R., C., C. 2009. A Case Study of the use of Short Stories in a Junior Secondary ESL Classroom in Hong Kong. Online. The International Journal of Learning, 16, (1).

Waters, A. (2009). Ideology in aplied linguistics for language teaching. Aplied Linguistics,30(1), p. 138-143, doi.org/10.1093/aplin/amp005.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.30630/polingua.v10i2.177


  • There are currently no refbacks.



 view Polingua stats